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A grammatical sex distinction, which is the prevailing one in the grammars of the Aryan tongues, does not exist in any American dialect known to me.[356] It is true that abstract general terms are absent or rare in the most primitive tongues. Of which states, such as become insane, are but the caricature samples of the hereditary family infirmities, and the actual habits of their lives; and perhaps this may happen to one less a hypocrite than the rest, because in such a one, the external and internal become more easily and readily in fixed and permanent correspondence. He is not certain that we ought to exclude the assistance of the invisible diabolic agencies![196] The sacred books of the Quiches, a tribe living in Guatemala related to the Mayas, ascribe this power to one of their most celebrated kings. The most marked improvements here on Hobbes’ statement are (1) that consciousness of our own superiority {122} need not come in, since we may 2000 word essay equals how many pages key laugh sympathetically with another who scores off his adversary, and so forth; (2) that the object degraded need not be a person, since human affairs in general, _e.g._, political institutions, a code of manners, a style of poetic composition, may be taken down; and (3) that, as in Aristotle’s theory, certain limiting conditions, namely, absence of counteracting emotions, such as pity or disgust, are recognised. Animals torment and worry one another without mercy: children kill flies for sport: every one reads the accidents and offences in a newspaper, as the cream of the jest: a whole town runs to be present at a fire, and the spectator by no means exults to see it extinguished. In Mexico and Central America, in the midst of beautiful scenery and where the flowery earth basks in the lap of an eternal spring, the tone of most of the songs is sad and lugubrious; or, if humorous, with a satirical, bitter, unhealthy humor, a _Schadenfreude_, which is far from wholesome merriment. When the civil duties of life are performed from right motives, we then are obedient to the first law of nature, as well as of the Decalogue: then all is healthy co-operation—all portions of the system have their fair proportion of exercise—none are over-worked, neither in the individual nor in the mass—neither in body nor in mind, as we at present see to be the case, singly and collectively: everywhere the effect is similar, destructive alike of all healthy, mental, and corporeal energy, and of all the sweet ties and charities of life which bind families and societies together. In a sense, emotion is feeling, which is the wider term; it is an effect, which therefore cannot exist without its cause, though the same cause under different circumstances may produce many varied emotions, both in quality and degree. It was observed, that after a hard day’s work, especially if he had profusely perspired, he had a more sound night’s sleep, and awoke somewhat improved in the morning; it is, however, to be remarked, that all this time he continued to have a regular system of medical treatment, which consisted in small repeated bleedings with leeches, averaging about three times in the fortnight, with purgatives, alteratives, and salines. The enthusiasts of old did all they could to strike the present existence from under our feet to give us another—to annihilate our natural affections and worldly vanities, so as to conform us to the likeness of God: the modern sciolists offer us Utopia in lieu of our actual enjoyments; for warm flesh and blood would give us a head of clay and a heart of steel, and conform us to their own likeness—‘a consummation not very devoutly to be wished!’ Where is the use of getting rid of the trammels of superstition and slavery, if we are immediately to be handed over to these new ferrets and inspectors of a _Police-Philosophy_; who pay domiciliary visits to the human mind, catechise an expression, impale a sentiment, put every enjoyment to the rack, leave you not a moment’s ease or respite, and imprison all the faculties in a round of cant-phrases—the Shibboleth of a party? There is no appeal from the eye with regard to the beauty of colours, nor from the ear with regard to the harmony of sounds, nor from the taste with regard to the agreeableness of flavours. Flowers and foliage, how elegant and beautiful soever, are not sufficiently interesting; they have not dignity enough, if I may say so, to be proper subjects for a piece of Sculpture, which is to please alone, and not to appear as the ornamental appendage of some other object. The fact that the basis of a smile is a movement of the mouth at once suggests a connection with the primal source of human as of animal enjoyment; and there seems, moreover, to be some evidence of the existence of such a connection. There are the duplicities of laughter which may sometimes impose even on one who is in general a kindly laugher, the note of malice stealing in unnoticed. In one sense it is true of all existences whatever that they are the same with themselves, that is they are what they are and not something else. The chief cause, however, why such objects produce such violent effects upon us, is their novelty. I shall have to show hereafter how all these cases might in their incipient and curable stage have their specific modes of moral and medical treatment applied in order to counteract and cure them; and by this method incurable cases would be almost unknown. The rapid rise of the public library is doubtless due, in part, to the neglect of its early opportunities by the Sunday-school library. Yet, even when considered under this narrow aspect, his theory shows itself to be palpably insufficient. The children of such learn their exceedingly complicated languages with a facility and accuracy which is surprising to the cultivated mind. Such a statement by him leads us to suspect that he had only that elementary knowledge of the tongue which Neve refers to in a forcible passage in his _Reglas_. How many librarians watch the work of individual members of the staff with such detail? Adam takes his stand on the Grammar and maintains its authenticity with earnestness. So the favourites of fortune adjust themselves in the glass of fashion, and the flattering illusions of public opinion. There can be no doubt of the value of such depository sets to certain libraries, and as they are given free of charge the only expense connected with them is the cost of an assistant’s time in filing them, amounting perhaps to an hour or two a day, and that of cabinets in which to keep them. According to James, “The Stream of Thought flows on: but most of its segments fall into the bottomless abyss of oblivion.”[58] “Retention means _liability_ [the italics are the author’s] to recall, and it means nothing more than such liability. These required intelligent adaptation of his movements at every instant, and to this he paid no attention. The body felt only the sensation of the present instant, whereas the mind felt also the past and the future, the one by remembrance, the other by anticipation, and consequently both suffered and enjoyed much more. Peter’s or St. After the persons who are recommended to our beneficence, either their connection with ourselves, by their personal qualities, or by their past services, come those who are pointed out, not indeed to, what is called, our friendship, but to our benevolent attention and good offices; those who are distinguished by their extraordinary situation; the greatly fortunate and the greatly unfortunate, the rich and the powerful, the poor and the wretched. [54] _Vide_ Bramwell’s “Hypnotism,” 3rd edition, p. Though in this, as well as in some other cases, we express by the same word, both the Sensation, and the Power of exciting that Sensation; this ambiguity of language occasions scarce any confusion in the thought, and when the different meanings of the word are properly distinguished, the opinions of the vulgar, 2000 word essay equals how many pages key and those of the philosopher, though apparently opposite, on examination turn out to be exactly the same. Many of my readers may have frequently danced this dance, and, in the opinion of all who saw them, with great grace and propriety, though neither they nor the spectators once thought of the allegorical meaning which it originally intended to express. Originally the custodian of volumes placed in his care by others, he has ended by becoming in these latter days much else, including a selector and a distributor, his duties in the former capacity being greatly influenced and modified by the expansion of his field in the latter. In this sense there is a oneness in all languages, which speaks conclusively for the oneness in the sentient and intellectual attributes of the species. Samuel Tuke says, “Many errors in the construction, as well as in the management, of asylums for the insane, appear to arise from excessive attention to safety; people in general have the most erroneous notions of the constantly outrageous behaviour, or malicious dispositions of deranged persons; and it has in many instances, been found convenient to encourage these sentiments, to apologize for the treatment of the unhappy sufferers, or admit the vicious neglect of their attendants.” In the construction of such places, cure and comfort ought to be as much considered as security; and I have no hesitation in declaring, that a system which, by limiting the power of the attendant, obliges him not to neglect his duty, and makes it his interest to obtain the good opinion of those under his care, provides more effectually for the safety of the keeper, as well as of the patient, than all “the apparatus of chains, darkness, and anodynes.” “The safety of those who attend upon the insane, is certainly an object of great importance; but it is worthy of enquiry whether it may not be attained, without materially interfering with another object, the recovery of the patient. A discourse on laughter can remove this kind of objection, if at all, only by showing in its own treatment of the subject that serious thought may touch even the gossamer wing of the merry {4} sprite and not destroy; that all things, and so the lightest, are things to be comprehended, if only we can reach the right points of view; and that the problems which rise above the mental horizon, as soon as we begin to think about man’s humorous bent, have a quite peculiar interest, an interest in which all who can both laugh at things and ponder on them may be expected to share. Those with the white side uppermost are the winning pieces. For other and equally solid reasons, no immigration of Polynesians can be assumed. On this as a unit, the customary land measure was based. D. Do we not see an author, who has had a tragedy damned, sit at the play every night of a new performance for years after, in the hopes of gaining a new companion in defeat? Lofty thoughts, beautiful metaphors, delicate allusions, these are his extraneous aids, and by no means his exclusive property; but the form is his own, be it quantity, rhyme, alliteration or accent. The good poet welds his theft into a whole of feeling which is unique, utterly different from that from which it was torn; the bad poet throws it into something which has no cohesion. This is not the place to argue so serious a matter.

This passion to discover the real sentiments of others is naturally so strong, that it often degenerates into a troublesome and impertinent curiosity to pry into those secrets of our neighbours which they have very justifiable reasons for concealing; and, upon many occasions, it requires prudence and a strong sense of propriety to govern this, as {301} well as all the other passions of human nature, and to reduce it to that pitch which any impartial spectator can approve of. 144), furnished an effective substitute for the combat in doubtful cases. The Sacred Symbols found in all continents are explained by a similar train of reasoning; while the modern folk-lore of two tribes of semi-Christianized Indians of to-day reveals some relics of the ancient usages. The {33} interests of these two are directly opposite. Every sensation that I feel, or that afterwards recurs vividly to my memory strengthens the sense of self, which increased strength in the mechanical feeling is transferred to the general idea, and to my remote, future, imaginary interest: whereas our sympathy with the feelings of others being always imaginary, having no sensible interest, no restless mechanical impulse to urge it on, the ties by which we are bound to others hang loose upon us, the interest we take in their welfare seems to be something foreign to our own bosoms, to be transient, arbitrary, and directly opposite to the necessary, absolute, permanent interest which we have in the pursuit of our own welfare. Every sense is supreme over its own objects. A MESSAGE TO BEGINNERS History may be described as an account of the conflict between the tendency of things to move and efforts to fasten them down so that they will keep still. Whibley is really interested; and he has escaped, without any programme of revolt, from the present century into those of Tudor and Stuart. The box, however, will retain the smell of musk for many, I do not know for how many years; and these effluvia, how minute soever we may suppose them, must have had the powers of subdividing themselves, and of emitting other effluvia of the same kind, continually, and without any interruption, during so long a period. And it is futile to expect most of our children to get it anywhere directly from persons. Afterwards no doubt the visible image comes in to confirm and give distinctness to the imperfect conclusions of the other sense.[84] It is by comparing the knowledge that I have of my own impressions, ideas, feelings, powers, &c. First, he should try to influence the growth of musical appreciation through the home, so that all the children in a family shall come to understand and use musical language as they do the language of the spoken word. Although he proclaimed that the person of man is the noblest thing of earth—“La persona del home es la mas noble cosa del mundo”[1477]—he held that stripes and other torture inflicted judicially were no dishonor even to Spanish sensitiveness.[1478] Asserting that torture was frequently requisite for the discovery of hidden crimes,[1479] he found himself confronted by the Church, which taught, as we shall see hereafter, that confessions extorted under torture were invalid. Hill, give genial response, even if the attacker be his familiar tickler, father or nurse; and the same is true, he adds, of a child when suffering from vaccination, or when mentally preoccupied with some hurt for which he is seeking for sympathy, or with a story which he wants you to tell him. But taking it by and large the much decried deluge of modern fiction has undoubtedly been educative in its tendency. We are often angry at ourselves, it was observed, we often become the objects of our own resentment and indignation, when the love of pleasure prompts to do what we disapprove of; and the irascible part of our nature is in this manner called in to assist the rational against the concupiscible. There are two or three general observations which will be of use in conducting us through this inquiry. Moreover, the business of testing would comprise some examination of the quality of the “humour” expressed, lest the pedagogue should be fostering in a boy a kind of growth which he is much better without. It would be as silly to grade such a staff and make rules for its promotion as it would be for a housekeeper with a cook and one maid to call the former Class A and the latter Class B, and draw up rules for their appointment and promotion. In such cases, the only effectual consolation of humbled and afflicted man lies in an appeal to a still higher tribunal, to that of the all-seeing Judge of the world, whose eye can never be deceived, and whose judgments can never be perverted. There was a natural contradiction between the physiognomy of their minds and bodies! “This,” said the bishop, “we had to do for them.” Therefore they did not have an alphabet in the sense of the word as we use it. In 1571 a case occurred, as Spelman says, “non sine magna jurisconsultorum perturbatione,” when, to determine the title to an estate in Kent, Westminster Hall was forced to adjourn to Tothill Fields, and all the preliminary forms of a combat were literally enacted with the most punctilious exactness, though an accommodation between the parties saved the skulls of their champions.[807] In 1583, however, 2000 word essay equals how many pages key a judicial duel was actually fought in Ireland between two O’Connors on an accusation of treason brought by one against the other, which ended by the appellant cutting off the defendant’s head and presenting it on his sword’s point to the justices.[808] A device, peculiar to the English jurisprudence, allowed a man indicted for a capital offence to turn “approver,” by confessing the crime and charging or appealing any one he choose as an accomplice, and this appeal was usually settled by the single combat. 16. We thus set ourselves up as the standard of perfection, and treat every thing else that diverges from that standard as beneath our notice. The remedy seems to be sought in segregation. {220} The wise and virtuous man directs his principal attention to the first 2000 word essay equals how many pages key standard; the idea of exact propriety and perfection. Let the _calenture_ be as strong as it will, the eye of the pit is upon them in the midst of it: the smile of the boxes, the roar of the gallery, pierces through their holly-hedges, and overthrows all their pastoral theories. This condition will be satisfied if it is manifest that the upsetting of rule, so far as it is intentional, is not serious but a sort of make-believe; or that it is confined within the limits of the harmless, as in the case of the angry man vainly threatening denunciation against all and sundry; or, again, that the failure to comply with rule is not intentional but due to ignorance. The popularity of the most successful writers operates to wean us from them, by the cant and fuss that is made about them, by hearing their names everlastingly repeated, and by the number of ignorant and indiscriminate admirers they draw after them:—we as little like to have to drag others from their unmerited obscurity, lest we should be exposed to the charge of affectation and singularity of taste. The continuance and propagation of the species depend altogether upon the former, and not upon the latter. There is no evidence of its existence among the Eastern Aryans, nor is it alluded to in any of the primitive “Leges Barbarorum,” though Russian legends render probable that it was current among the Slavs at an early day.[1136] Enthusiastic explorers into antiquity quote Aristotle for it,[1137] while others find in Lucretius evidence that it was shared by cultured Romans.[1138] Possibly its origin may be derived from a Jewish custom under which pardon was asked of a corpse for any offences committed against the living man, the offender laying hold of the great toe of the body as prepared for sepulture, and it is said to be not uncommon, where the injury has been grievous, for the latter to respond to the touch by a copious nasal hemorrhage.[1139] The earliest allusion I have met with to this belief occurs in 1189, and shows that already it was rooted in popular credulity. But if my memory fails me, or I do not seize on the true character of different feelings, I shall make little progress, or be quite thrown out in my reckoning. In like manner I conceive that this idea of pain when combined by the imagination with other circumstances and transferred to the child’s future being will still retain its original tendency to give pain, and that the recurrence of the same painful sensation is necessarily regarded with terror and aversion by the child, not from it’s being conceived of in connection with his own idea, but because it is conceived of as pain.[77] It should also be remembered as the constant principle of all our reasonings, that the impression which the child has of himself as the subject of future pain is never any thing more than an idea of imagination, and that he cannot possibly by any kind of anticipation feel that pain as a real sensation a single moment before it exists. From the lash of necessity. This is a second step toward the museum use of the library. They bulk among the jocosities of savage tribes—or at least many of these—and of the less refined among civilised societies. He who comes up to his own idea of greatness, must always have had a very low standard of it in his mind. Many countries, that have been destroyed, bear melancholy witness to the truth of history, and show the tops of their houses and the spires of their steeples, still standing at the bottom of the water. In Latin, for example, _lupus_, _lupa_; _equus_, _equa_; _juvencus_, _juvenca_; _Julius_, _Julia_; _Lucretius_, _Lucretia_, &c., denote the qualities of male and female in the animals and persons to whom such appellations belong, without needing the addition of any adjective for this purpose. It is also occasionally used by the missionaries for the love of man to God and of God to man.[361] In the Chipeway this root has but one form, _sagi_; but in Cree it has two, a weak and a strong form, _saki_ and _sakk_. My reason for this alteration, in the Act relative to such places, is, that large and crowded houses are decidedly objectionable, from the greater chance of noise and disturbance, from their being less healthy, and from their assuming more of a prison-like appearance, than of a family mansion. Hence, the specialisation of the primal laughter of delight into that of fun would appear to be one of the simplest processes in the whole development of the emotion. Is it not then of importance that we should do every thing possible to lessen the present feelings of horror associated with such places? I can offer no explanation of the anomaly, and can only state the bare fact that the judicial combat is not referred to in any of the Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Danish codes.[314] There seems, indeed, to be no reason to doubt that its introduction into English jurisprudence dates only from the time of William the Conqueror.[315] The Goths, while yet untainted by the influence of Rome, were no less given to the employment of the judicial duel than their Teutonic kindred, and Theodoric vainly endeavored to suppress the custom among those of his subjects who had remained in Pannonia.[316] That no trace of it is to be found among the extant laws of both Ostrogoths and Wisigoths, framed subsequently to their settlement in Italy, France, and Spain, is easily explained. There are (I may add here) a happy few, whose manner is so engaging and delightful, that injure you how they will, they cannot offend you. When a woman appeared, either as appellant or defendant, in the lists by her champion, if he was defeated she was promptly burnt, no matter what was the crime for which the duel occurred—and as many accusations could only be determined by the wager of battle, she had no choice but to undergo the chance of the most dreadful of deaths.[549] It was not customary to order the combat to take place immediately, but to allow a certain interval for the parties to put their affairs in order and to undergo the necessary training. I have seen a convalescent patient very much attracted by, and perfectly delighted with, the strange remarks, speeches, and conduct of another inmate, sometimes fancying it was meant purposely for his amusement and diversion; and on whom, refined wit would have been lost, while the incongruous combinations of unguided thought, which no wit or ingenuity can equal, appears, and is the very essence of wit to him. If it were not that Heaven inflicts these severe punishments the world would be ungoverned.”[821] It is, therefore, in strict compliance with this philosophy that in the modern jurisprudence of China there is no allusion to any evidence save that of facts duly substantiated by witnesses, and even oaths are neither required nor admitted in judicial proceedings.[822] These teachings, however, are too refined and sublimated for ordinary human nature, and along-side of official Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism flourish with a wealth of legends and marvels that may fairly rival the most exuberant fancies of Teutonic or Latin medi?valism. In the milder form of scourging it might be used in all preliminary examinations. They tell the story of a library in Philadelphia, a beautiful old mausoleum, where an escaped criminal once stayed in its public reading room for three days before the police found him. It could override any system that it might adopt, just as easily as it could go over the head of the librarian’s recommendation; and it is better for its own dignity that a departure from the system should take the latter form, rather than the former. Take if you please this case, dating back about a dozen years: An enterprising firm, operating a department store, offered to give to a branch library a collection of several thousand historical works on condition that these should be kept in a separate alcove plainly labeled “The gift of Blank Brothers.” Nothing so unusual about this. Dining at the usurped property one day, and boasting of his contempt for the complaints of the holy monks, he took a pear and exclaimed—“I call this pear to witness that before the year is out I will give them ample cause for grumbling.” Choking with the first morsel, he was carried speechless to bed, and miserably perished unhouselled, a warning to evildoers not to tempt too far the patience of St. 2000 many equals key pages essay how word.